References

Science Volume 4 Issue 5 – May 2016

Lava Lamp Bibliography:

Bubbling Lava Lamp. Steve Spangler Science. Available at: http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/lab/experiments/bubbling-lava-lamp. Accessed: 15 November 2013.

Happy birthday Lava Lamp! Groovy Sixties accessory celebrates 50th anniversary. Associated Press. 2 September 2013. Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2409273/The-Lava-Lamp-celebrates-50th-anniversary.html. Accessed: November 2013.

Harris T. How Liquid Motion Lamps Work. How Stuff Works. Available at:   http://home.howstuffworks.com/lava-lamp.htm. Accessed: November 2013.

Harty E. What Is the Liquid in Glitter Lamps? eHow. Available at: http://www.ehow.com/facts_6557151_liquid-glitter-lamps_.html. Accessed: 15 November 2013.

How does a lava lamp work? How Stuff Works. Available at: http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/science-questions/question36.htm. Accessed: November 2013.

Kleinman Z. Lava lamp creators mark 50 years of 1960s icon. BBC News. 29 August 2013. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-23754303. Accessed: 01 May 2016.

Lesson Plan 17 – DIY Lava Lamp. ABC Science Online. 2008. Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/science/surfingscientist/pdf/lesson_plan17.pdf. Accessed: 15 November 2013

Shields B. What Is the Liquid in a Lava Lamp? eHow. Available at: http://www.ehow.com/about_5387739_liquid-lava-lamp.html. Accessed: 15 November 2013.

Wikipedia contributors. Lava lamp. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. April 21, 2016, 23:01 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lava_lamp&oldid=716468780. Accessed: November 2013.

Lava lamp Image sources:

  1. Mathmos.com, Worlds_largest_lava_lamp, mathmos_worlds_largest_lava_lamp_southbank_centre.jpg
  2. Mathmos.com, Original lava lamp, 1963, http://cdn.historyextra.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/800px_530px/gallery/mathmos_original_lava_lamp_%271960s%20astro%20prototype%20by%20the%20founder%20of%20Mathmos%27%20HR.jpg
  3. Mathmos.com, Vintage_astro_lava_lamp_60s_advert, mathmos_vintage_astro_lava_lamp_60s_advert.jpg
  4. Mathmos.com, Mr and Mrs Craven Walker, mathmos_vintage_Mr_and_Mrs_Craven_Walker.jpg
  5. November child. An original Mathmos lava lamp, model “Astro”, as it was sold during the 1990s. 2009, Wikimedia Commons, 2013, under attribution share-alike licence. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Lava_lamps#/media/File:1990s_Mathmos_Astro.jpg
  6. Dean Hochman, lava lamps, Flickr, 2013, https://c2.staticflickr.com/8/7493/16136876840_e427cd4dc3_b_d.jpg
  7. Risa1029, Blue Lava Lamp, Wikimedia Commons, 2012, under attribution share-alike licence. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blue_Lava_lamp.JPG
  8. Darren Glanville. Lava Lamp. Wikimedia Commons, 2013, under attribution share-alike licence. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Lava_lamps#/media/File:Lava_Lamp_(8661684036).jpg
  9. M Gregory, own work.
  10. USGS, Toes of a p?hoehoe advance across a road in Kalapana on the east rift zone of K?lauea Volcano in Hawaii, United States. Wikimedia Commons, 2012, Public Domain. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PahoehoeLava.jpg
  11. M Gregory, own work.
  12. M Gregory, own work.

Carbon article Bibliography:

Allotropes of carbon and nanochemistry. BBC. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_ocr_gateway/chemical_economics/nanochemistryrev1.shtml. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Amorphous Forms of Carbon, TutorVista.com. Available at: http://www.tutorvista.com/content/science/science-ii/carbon-compounds/amorphous-carbon.php. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Anthony S. Graphene aerogel is seven times lighter than air, can balance on a blade of grass. ExtremeTech. April 10, 2013. Available at: http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/153063-graphene-aerogel-is-seven-times-lighter-than-air-can-balance-on-a-blade-of-grass. Accessed April 30, 2016.

IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology – the Gold Book. IUPAC. Available at: http://goldbook.iupac.org/index.html. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Graphene Aerogel – A new very lightweight strong material. Aerogelgraphene. Mar 24, 2016. Available at: http://www.aerogelgraphene.com/graphene-aerogel-2/. Accessed March 30, 2016.

Refractory Open-Cell Foams:Carbon, Ceramic, and Metal. Ultramet. Available at: http://www.ultramet.com/refractoryopencells_rvcf.html. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Rice University. Carbon Nanotubes Found To Fluoresce; Optical Properties Could Prove Useful In Biomedical, Nanoelectronic Applications. ScienceDaily. July 30, 2002. Available at: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/07/020730075519.htm. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Rossi. M. How can graphite and diamond be so different if they are both composed of pure carbon? Scientific American. October 9, 2007. Available at: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-can-graphite-and-diam/. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Shipman S. Researchers find new phase of carbon, make diamond at room temperature. Phys.org. November 30, 2015. Available at: http://phys.org/news/2015-11-phase-carbon-diamond-room-temperature.html. Accessed April 30, 2016.

The Element Carbon, Jefferson Lab.  Available at: http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele006.html. Accessed April 30, 2016.

University Of Hawaii. New Form Of Pure Carbon Found In Mexican Meteorite — Possible Player In Origin Of Life. ScienceDaily. July 15, 1999. Available at: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/07/990715063659.htm. Accessed April 30, 2016.

What is graphene? Graphene Industries. Available at: http://www.grapheneindustries.com/?What+is+graphene%3F. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Aerographite. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. March 8, 2016, 07:35 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerographite. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Allotropy. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. April 15, 2016, 08:09 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allotropy. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Amorphous carbon. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. April 2, 2016, 16:55 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorphous_carbon. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Carbon nanofoam. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. February 4, 2016, 18:46 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_nanofoam. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Diamond. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. April 20, 2016, 11:10 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Fullerene. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. March 31, 2016, 23:16 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fullerene. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Glassy carbon. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. March 16, 2016, 21:43 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glassy_carbon. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Graphene. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. April 29, 2016, 19:45 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Graphite. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. April 22, 2016, 18:51 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphite. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Linear acetylenic carbon. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. April 13, 2016, 17:13 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_acetylenic_carbon. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Lonsdaleite. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. April 16, 2016, 19:09 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lonsdaleite. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Petroleum coke. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. March 27, 2016, 13:26 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum_coke. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Q-carbon. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. April 11, 2016, 13:56 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q-carbon. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Wikipedia contributors. Synthetic diamond. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. April 30, 2016, 01:45 UTC. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthetic_diamond#High_pressure.2C_high_temperature. Accessed April 30, 2016.

Carbon article Image sources:

  1. Ströck and US Gov (composite work). Graphite structure and Graphite sample. Wikimedia Commons. 2009. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diamond_and_graphite2.jpg
  2. Ströck and US Gov (composite work). Diamond structure and Diamond sample. Wikimedia Commons. 2009. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diamond_and_graphite2.jpg
  3. Mrs Scarborough, 4 “vine” charcoal sticks and 4 compressed charcoal sticks. Wikimedia Commons. 1907. Public Domain. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Charcoal_sticks_051907.jpg
  4. Honza Groh, A few pills of bone char. Wikimedia Commons. 2010. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_char#/
  5. Reaction forming sugar charcoal, Public Domain
  6. FK1954, A small mound of carbon black. Wikimedia Commons. 2009. Public Domain. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_black#/media/File:Carbon_black.jpg
  7. Romanm, Petroleum coke, close-up. Wikimedia Commons. 2011. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum_coke#/media/File:Petrolkoks_IMG_6166.jpg
  8. Diamond Lattice, http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/gcsechem_55.jpg
  9. Cubic Diamond Structure, Wikimedia Commons. 2007. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Diamond_cubic#/media/File:DiamantEbene11.png
  10. Jorfer, Brown diamonds, Wikimedia Commons. 2007. Public Domain. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond#/media/File:National_Museum_of_Natural_History_Gold_Colored_Diamonds.JPG
  11. The Hope Diamond, Wikimedia Commons. 2012. Public Domain. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/The_Hope_Diamond_-_SIA.jpg
  12. Nearly octahedral diamond crystal protrudes from a black rock. Wikimedia Commons. 2005. Public Domain. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Rough_diamond.jpg
  13. Synthetic diamonds of various colours. Wikimedia Commons. 2009. Public Domain. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HPHTdiamonds2.JPG
  14. Steve Jurvetson, Diamond grown by chemical vapour deposition, Flickr, 2006, Under creative commons licence. https://c1.staticflickr.com/1/77/156830367_ea6525fc62_o_d.jpg
  15. Gump Stump, One face of an uncut octahedral diamond, Wikimedia Commons. 2009. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Diamond_face_trigons_scale.jpg
  16. Asbestos, Schematic diagram of a volcanic pipe, Wikimedia Commons. 2005. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VolcanicPipe.jpg
  17. Richard Wheeler, Diamond Knife Blade Edge, Wikimedia Commons. 2013. Under creative commons licence. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diamond_Knife_Blade_Edge.jpg
  18. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_ocr_gateway/chemical_economics/nanochemistryrev2.shtml
  19. USGOV, Graphite, Wikimedia Commons. 2005. Public Domain. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphite#/media/File:GraphiteUSGOV.jpg
  20. Mike Beauregard, Kimmirut Graphite, Wikimedia Commons. 2011. Under creative commons licence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphite#/media/File:Kimmirut_Graphite.jpg
  21. AlexanderAlUS, Graphene crystalline structure. Wikimedia Commons. 2005. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene#/media/File:Graphen.jpg
  22. Fullerene structure – C60, jpg. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa/atomic/differentsubrev4.shtml
  23. Andreykor, C60 crystal structure, Wikimedia Commons. 2011. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fullerite_structure.jpg
  24. Schwarzm, Carbon nanotube structure, Wikimedia Commons. 2004. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_nanotube#/media/File:Kohlenstoffnanoroehre_Animation.gif
  25. Michael Ströck, A diagram showing the types of carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotube structure, Wikimedia Commons. 2006. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Types_of_Carbon_Nanotubes.png
  26. Arkady Krasheninnikov, Computer model of several stable NanoBud structures. Wikimedia Commons. 2006. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:NanobudComputations70%25.jpg
  27. Ludvig14, Fullerite C60 Scanning Electron Microscope image, Wikimedia Commons. 2011. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fullerene#/media/File:C60_SEM.jpg
  28. Jochen Gschnaller, The C60 fullerene in crystalline form. Wikimedia Commons. 2004. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fullerene#/media/File:C60-Fulleren-kristallin.JPG
  29. Alchemist-hp, A large sample of glassy carbon, Wikimedia Commons. 2014. Under Free Art Licence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glassy_carbon#/media/File:Glassy_carbon_and_a_1cm3_graphite_cube_HP68-79.jpg
  30. Three samples of RVC foam showing pore structure at different pore sizes (all ~10×), http://www.ultramet.com/refractoryopencells_rvcf.html
  31. Sample of Carbon aerogel, http://www.buyaerogel.com/product/carbon-aerogel/
  32. Free2KnowFree2Think, A SEM image of the Aerographite network morphology, Wikimedia Commons. 2013. Under creative commons share-alike licence. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerographite#/media/File:TUHH_CAU_newexampleAerographite_Netwok.png
  33. Zhejiang University, Ultra-light Aerogel, 2013, http://avax.news/pictures/74684
  34. Ichthyothereol is a polyyne that occurs in plants in the genus Ichthyothere and is highly toxic to fish. Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ichthyothereol_skeletal.png
  35. Materialscientist, Crystal structure of lonsdaleite (hexagonal diamond), Wikimedia Commons. 2013. Under creative commons share-alike licence, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lonsdaleite#/media/File:Lonsdaleite.png
  36. Swamibu, http://phys.org/news/2015-11-phase-carbon-diamond-room-temperature.html